Following is a reproduction of Ford's
Ford Factory Facts booklet issued in 1915. Similar to the 1912 booklet also reproduced
on this site, the Ford business had grown considerably since 1912 and there are is good
amount of additional information here.
As great as this booklet describes the Ford Motor Company, the company became so successful that this data is but a hint of what was to happend in the following years.
General View of the New Power House
THE continual march of efficiency throughout the entire Ford factory makes the recital of "factory facts" most difficult. Change is the order of the day because of the unceasing efforts to increase and improve production and reduce the cost. To make Ford cars in larger volume, maintaining the high standards of quality and efficiency. This means that the "factory facts" of today will be different from those of a few months hence. But in this small book are the fundamentals which have brought success and made the Ford factory, in high efficiency and large production, the greatest institution in the automobile world.
THE Ford ~Motor Company is pleased to extend to all visitors, the privilege of an
inspection of its plant, and for this purpose maintains a staff of experienced guides,
who are thoroughly familiar with the activities of the various departments.
Through its product, methods of progressive efficiency in manufacturing, the Ford Profit-Sharing Plan, by which its employees are the best paid workmen in the country, the Ford Company has become a principal point of interest in Detroit and one of national prominence.
A trip to Detroit is not complete without a visit to the Ford factory, and visitors come, not only from all portions of the United States, but from all parts of the world. Many foreign dignitaries, while in this country, have made special trips to Detroit to inspect the Ford factory, and to acquaint themselves with Ford principles of shop practice, with the Ford Profit-Sharing Plan, and the Sociological Work. As many as 17,241 visitors have been so entertained in a single month. In the summer months an average of from 300 to 400 persons are conducted through the plant each day.
It is impossible in the short time which the average visitor can spend in the factory, to obtain an adequate idea of the magnitude of the operations or to thoroughly follow the details of the work. Some of the more important processes are set down in this booklet, and from its perusal, the reader will gain a reasonable conception of how Ford men, methods and machinery can produce 500,000, and more, automobiles ma single year. The descriptions are largely those heard from the lips of the guide; the illustrations are glimpses behind the scenes in the Ford shops.
One must first obtain some conception of the magnitude of the plant, taken as a whole. The entire Detroit property comprises a plot of ground containing 276 acres; there are 47.5 acres of floor space actually under roof. The annual business of the Ford Motor Company approximates $150,000,000 which means that each acre of floor space produces at the rate-of more than $3,000,000 annually.
The average number of employees is about 21,000 on the factory payroll
at one time. Fifty-three nationalities, speaking more than 100 languages and
dialects are to be found in the Ford shops. The wages and share of profits of the
factory employees at the present time, average #2,000,000 per month.
The Administration building, to which all visitors come first, is on Woodward avenue. This is a four-story structure and contains the general offices of the Company. It is 300 feet long and 65 feet in width. The average number of employees on the salary roll is 850, averaging about $60,000 a month, exclusive of executives and department managers.
At the information desk in the lobby of the Administration building the visitor secures a pass to go through the factory with the guides who conduct parties at regular intervals.
5,000 h.p. Gas-Steam Engine showing Fly Wheel and Electric Generator>
Just north of the Administration building is the new power house, which
supplies the motive element for the entire factory. in the construction of this
building 5,200 tons of structural steel were used, the equivalent necessary to build
a modern 20-story sky-scraper.
Seven engines, of a combination gas-steam type, are housed in this building, and develop 45,000 h.p. This is probably the largest individual unit of any power plant in the world, and is the only one of its kind in actual operation. The engines were designed by Ford engineers, and are the first gas-steam engines to be put to practical use.
Some idea of the size of the engines is gained from the fact that the stroke is 72 inches while the cylinders are 42 inches in diameter. The fly-wheel is 20 feet in diameter and has a gross weight of 100 tons.
In producing the steam for these engines, 40 tons of coal per hour are consumed. In addition to the steam, the daily consumption of producer gas for power purposes only, is 1,320,000 cubic feet. Added to this figure for power gas, is another item of gas used in the factory for various purposes, which averages nearly 900,000 cubic feet per day, and brings the per diem consumption of gas by the Company up to 2,200,000 cubic feet. This is enough to supply the daily home needs of a city of 100,000 population.
From the lobby of the Administration building, one enters the garage.
Here under a glass roof, supported by steel arches, are 13,400 square feet of
floor space, furnishing sufficient parking room for 64 cars belonging to the
Company and officials.
The main factory buildings are entered directly from the garage. These buildings are 900 feet long and 800 feet wide, four stories in height and of fire proof construction. They are so designed that every part of the interior receives a full share of daylight.
The heating and ventilating of the factory building is accomplished in
a modern, scientific manner. In the winter, warm washed air is forced through long
ducts in the floor up into the room. In the summer, cool washed air is handled in
the same way, thus providing a clean, healthful atmosphere the year around. By this
system the air in the factory is completely changed five times per hour.
Imagine now, that you are in the Ford factory, surrounded by the hum and throb of speeding machinery, the industry and systematic labor of 21,000 or more men, every one a specialist in his work.
At the right as the visitor enters the factory is seen the Tool Construction Department. Here are employed approximately 600 expert tool makers, machinists and die sinkers. These men are engaged in making new machinery, (designed in the Company shops), tools, jigs, fixtures and other machine shop accessories, and repairing those in use.
At the left is a crane-way, recently constructed, the crane of which has a capacity of 40 tons. This crane serves the power house in transporting heavy pieces used in connection with the big engines, and also facilitates the working of the tool construction department, by carrying cumbersome parts of machinery to and from it for alterations and repairs.
Here the visitor is standing upon the roof of a great tunnel, in which are all the heating, water and steam pipes, and the power cables running from the power house to various parts of the shop. This tunnel is large enough to permit the easy passage of a Ford touring car.
A few steps farther bring one to the Factory Office where the superintendents confer with their foremen, to work out the many various problems that daily confront them. It is here, too, that Mr. Ford meets with the superintendents almost every day, to outline the work of the shops, and give his aid to mechanical problems, in which he takes a specially active interest.
Standing in front of the Factory Office, the visitor is doubly impressed
with the magnitude of the view before him. In one continuous room, containing
approximately 700,000 square feet of floor space, there are, in round numbers,
6,000 machines in actual operation, representing an outlay of about $3,000,000.
These machines use some 1,200 gallons of 'lubricating oils and cutting fluids each
day. For driving the many machines, about fifty miles; of leather belting are used,
giving the room the appearance of a dense forest.
&emsp: The visitor who is familiar with machine shop practice will notice at once the peculiar location and setting of machinery in this shop. The machines of a class, or type, are not all located in a single group or unit. Each department contains all of the necessary. machinery to complete every operation on each part or piece it produces. To illustrate, a rough forging or casting is started in a department at one point, and after passing through the machines doing the required operations, it leaves this department in a finished condition, ready to be assembled into the car.
Such a system necessitates the grouping together of many different
kinds of machines, as well as including brazing furnaces, cyanide furnaces and
other special units (most generally found in separate buildings). Chutes run from
one machine to another, so that a workman can transport a part from his operation
to the next one by gravity. The results of this transportation system are remarkable,
making a big saving in trucking expense, loss of material and the absence of usual
As the visitor passes down through the machine shop, he particularly notices the sanitary conditions of the plant. There is a department, enrolling about 300 men, whose duties are to keep the floors swept clean, the windows washed, in fact to keep the sanitary conditions surrounding the workmen as nearly perfect as possible. The floors of the entire plant are scrubbed at least once a week, with hot water and a strong solution of alkali, which removes the grease. Another department of about 25 men does nothing but paint the walls and ceilings of the factory, keeping everything fresh and clean.
To facilitate the inter-departmental transportation of materials in the factory, there is an overhead monorail system, comprising over 1-1/2 miles of I-beam track. On this system are nine monorail ears, each car having two 2-ton hoists, by means of which great boxes and trays of material can be picked up and carried overhead from point to point in the shop.
After leaving the Superintendent's office, a turn to the right brings one to the Manchester Avenue entrance to the factory. Here is the Paymaster's office, where each employee of the factory receives his pay every two weeks. In this connection it is interesting to note that in the Ford factory every day is pay-day. The number of employees is so large that it would be quite impossible to pay them all in one day, so each man is classified by letter and number, each group having its own regular pay-day.
Near the pay office is the main first aid hospital. Here the chief
surgeon has on his staff eight regular doctors and several first aid nurses. The
surgical equipment of this hospital, which includes an X-ray machine, pulmotor,
operating table and electrical appliances, as well as improved surgical instruments,
enables the surgeon to cope with any accident. It is gratifying to state in this
connection, that practically all the injuries received by Ford employees are of a
more or less minor nature. This is the result of the efficient work done by our
Safety-First Committee, composed of 20 men who are constantly engaged in educating
the men along Safety-First lines, as well as devising as many safeguards as it is
practicable to place in the shop and upon the different machines. In this hospital,
an employee may be treated for general debility, as well as accident, since the
Company considers it better for the employee (and for the Company), to be able to
remain at work by receiving medical attention, than to have him lay off for lack
It is interesting to note that the surgeons have been able to cope successfully with cases of tuberculosis among the employees. In doing this, they use the warm, dry air of the heat-treating department. When it has been brought to the surgeon's attention that an employee is afflicted with tuberculosis, he is immediately transferred to this department and given a light job, so he can receive the benefit of the healing atmosphere. A comparison (made on the same day), showed the humidity in the air of the Ford heat-treating department to be less than at Denver, Colorado. Cases of tuberculosis that have been transferred to this department have shown a marked improvement, and a number of those afflicted have been transferred back to their old jobs, apparently cured.
Next to the hospital is located the Employment office. This office, in addition to being an employment office, is a clearing house for Ford employees, and all transfers and discharges are handled through it. The power of discharge has been taken from the hands of the individual foreman. It was found upon investigation that the majority of cases of discharge were due to prejudice or personal feeling between the employees and foremen, or that the employee had been placed at work for which he was not fitted, either mentally or physically. Under the present conditions when a foreman wants to discharge an employee, he sends the man with a written slip, to the employment office, where the matter is thoroughly investigated, and unless the ease is an extreme one, the man is transferred to another department, in which he will, perhaps, find conditions more agreeable or for which he is better fitted. Some men have been given as many as six or seven opportunities to make good.
Adjoining the Employment office is the Watchman's department. A force of 150 men is employed to look after the well-being of the employees; to take care of the various exits and entrances of the plant. These men are also responsible for the maintenance and inspection of the factory fire department, which is distributed over the entire plant. This equipment consists of more than 2 miles of hose, 1,350 3-gallon and 5840-gallon portable chemical tanks, and is as complete as that usually found in a city of 25,000 population. In addition to the fire-fighting apparatus the entire plant is safe-guarded by an automatic sprinkler system, composed of water pipes in all the buildings, hung next to the ceiling and so arranged that a sprinkler head is placed every 10 feet. If, at any time, the temperature of a room should reach 160 degrees, these heads, in the location affected, will open automatically, pouring out water, which is piped from two tanks having a combined capacity of 600,000 gallons.
Rear Axle Assembly
Proceeding from the Watchman's office, the visitor finds himself in the
main crane-way, devoted exclusively to the storage of parts in the rough, or
semi-finished condition. This crane-way contains over 67,000 square feet of floor
space. Overhead are two 5-ton electric cranes, so arranged that they can unload
material from railway cars at one end of the crane-way and deposit it in a position
to be picked up by the monorail cars, or placed in bins or barrels for storage. An
interesting item in regard to these cranes is that the load can be moved in three
directions at one time, this being accomplished by means of the small car hoist.
While the crane proper is moving through the crane-way, this car travels across
the crane, and at the same time raises or lowers whatever may be suspended from it.
In the crane-way will be noticed a number of inspectors, who are gauging and testing various parts and materials.
Passing by the crane-way one comes to the rear axle unit assembly. The manufacturing policy of the Company is to make unit assemblies in different departments and deliver them to the Final Assembly. This is one of the methods which has enabled the main factory, and its various branch assembly plants, to assemble and ship over 2,000 finished cars in a day of 8 hours.
In the unit assembly departments are received the finished parts from t he machine shop. These parts are assembled on progressive traveling tracks. By this system each assembler, or operator, performs one operation only, and repeats this operation on every unit passing through the department. As a result, every operator soon becomes a specialist, and specialization is the fundamental principle of the entire Ford organization.
The economic results from this system have been wonderful, as will be shown in some of the departments yet to be described. It saves floor space, and eliminates congestion due to trucking, as large quantities of material are piled along each side of the conveyor, and the unit in process of assembling is moved to the stock, rather than each individual piece of the assembly being distributed at different places.
Cylinder Machining Department
After the rear axle has been completely assembled, it is immersed in a
tank containing enamel, and is hung on a special trolley which runs by gravity along
an I-beam track. This trolley carries the axle to an elevator, which lifts it to a
conveyor baking oven, located in a section of the roof. The axles are continually
moving through this oven, and at the expiration of about 45 minutes emerge from the
far end completely baked. They are automatically dropped onto another elevator
which lowers them to the point near where they are used in the Final Assembly. All
material and unit assemblies move in one direction---that is, toward the Final Assembly.
Beyond the rear axle section is the department that makes the magnets for the special Ford magneto, and also that in which the transmission is assembled on a conveyor track, ending in an automatic elevator which transports the completed transmission to the Motor Assembly line.
Transmission Case Department
In the rear of the transmission department is the Motor Assembly. This
assembly begins at the point where the cylinder machine shop ends, so that the
movement of the cylinder from the time it arrives in the machine shop until it goes
into the finished motor, is continuous. In the machining of the cylinder castings,
and the operation of assembling the motor, close inspection of the work is noticeable.
By the use of the assembling line, better inspection is possible, than where one or
two men assemble the entire motor. In addition to the inspection in the assembly,
there are three points of trial, or working or testing, which show up any defects
in the motor.
The final operation in the motor assembly line is the block test, where the motor is inspected and tested before being assembled into the chassis. On the block test, the motor is driven by an electric motor for the final o.k. and tryout before being installed in this chassis.
At the end of this testing period, if no defect has developed, the motor is approved, placed upon a special truck and wheeled to the Final Assembling line.
The motor department just described furnishes an interesting illustration of the, economy of the moving assembling system. Before the present system was installed about 1,100 employees were required in this department, working a 9 hour day to build 1,000 motors. Today, as a direct result of the new methods of assembling, and the efficiency gained through the Profit-Sharing with employees, about 550 men are assembling 1,400 motors, in an 8 hour day. This reduces the time required per motor, from 9 hrs. 54 min, to 3 hrs, 10 min.
The assembling of the front axle, dash and radiator are fully as
interesting as the unit just described, but space will not permit a detailed
explanation of them.
Perhaps the most interesting department in the whole factory, to the visitor, is the Final Assembly. In this division, all the assembled units meet the assembly conveyor at the point where they are needed. At the start of the track a front axle unit, a rear axle unit and a frame unit are assembled. This assembly is then started in motion by means of a chain conveyor, and as it moves down the room at a constant speed of 8 feet per minute, each man adds one part to the growing chassis or does one operation, which is assigned to him, so that when the chassis reaches the end of the line, it is ready to run on its own power.
In following the Final Assembly line from the point where the chain conveyor engages the frame and axles, the visitor is impressed with the dispatch with which every movement is executed. The gasoline tank, for example, comes down from the fourth floor on a conveyor outside of the building, and drops through a chute onto a bridge over the assembly line. On this bridge is located a gasoline pump, from which each tank receives one gallon of gasoline before it is installed in the car.
Installing Motor on Final Assembly Line
After the gasoline tank is assembled, a number of small units are
added, such as the hand brake control lever, gasoline feed pipe, and fender
irons, until the point is reached at which the motor is placed in the frame.
The ease with which this is performed furnishes one of the best illustrations of
the interchangeability of Ford parts.
Ordinarily the setting of a motor in the frame is a long operation, but in the Ford assembly the motor is elevated by a hoist, and lowered into place while the chassis is moving along the conveyor, track. From this point, other small parts are added, and bolts tightened, until the growing chassis reaches the bridge on which the dash unit is deposited by a chute from the second floor, where it is assembled. The dash unit includes the dash, complete steering gear, coil, horn, and all wiring ready to be attached to the motor, so that its installation is rapid.
Further along, such parts as the exhaust pipe, muffler, and side pans for the motor are quickly fastened in place, and the wheels are brought into the assembly.
There will be noticed the vertical chutes, extending through the ceiling. Down through these, from the third floor, come the wheels, with the tires mounted and inflated to the proper pressure. From this point the chassis moves under the bridge upon which are stored the radiators, which have been delivered by a belt conveyor.
At the end of the assembly line, the rear wheels on the finished chassis drop into a set of revolving grooved wheels, sunk into the concrete floor, and driven by an overhead motor. Two ends are accomplished by this operation. First, when the wheels of the car revolve with the grooved wheels, this motion is transmitted to the differential, through the drive shaft to the motor, limbering up all these parts. The second is that while the parts are being limbered up, the switch is turned on and the motor started.
Mechanical Starter---End of Final Assembly
At the end of the line the complete chassis is driven out into the
yard under its own power. On an average, a completed car leaves the assembly line
about every 25 seconds. Guided by practiced hands the chassis moves swiftly out
into the yard, turns sharply and enters the final inspection line. A corps of
inspectors at this point takes charge of the chassis, and the responsibility for
each part is assigned to some one man.
The factory production is considerably augmented by the output of the Ford Branch Assembling Plants throughout the country. These will be described more fully later on. With the aid of these plants it was possible for the Company, to produce and actually sell 47,043 Ford cars during the month of May, 1915.
From the final testing line the chassis is driven to the body chutes, which extend into the factory yard from the third floor of the, new six-story building, and are so constructed that the chassis may be driven under them. The bodies are let down the chutes on belt conveyors, picked up by small derricks and swung over onto the chassis.
Here is another practical illustration of Ford efficiency. The bodies are at this time placed on the chassis merely as a means of a rapid transportation to the freight cars, for in ordinary transportation the bodies are packed in the cars separate from the chassis.
In the rear of the main plant are two six-story buildings each 60 feet wide by 845 feet long, built parallel to each other and connected by a crane-way 40 feet wide the full length and height of the buildings.
The new buildings are of reinforced concrete, steel doors and sash being used throughout. Their erection increased the factory floor space by 687,600 square feet, and involved an expenditure of about $1,250,000.
The boiler house, which furnishes the steam for heating the entire plant is located in the rear of these buildings. The method of heating is worthy of particular interest, as the air is forced over coils of steam pipes located in pent houses on the roofs, and from this point is driven down into the various rooms through the hollow columns which support the floors. In the summer cool washed air is forced down through these same columns, maintaining a normal, even temperature, compatible with the state of the weather.
Various unit assemblies, small machine departments, and store rooms
are located here in addition to all the body work.
Practically the entire first floors are used as a receiving department, where all the material consigned to the Company is checked and inspected. Railway tracks run the full length of both crane-ways, facilitating the unloading and loading of supplies and parts.
The body department occupies the greatest amount of space, requiring, with the upholstering department, most of the three upper floors. In addition to this work the construction of tops, curtains, and radiators is carried on, and a large space is used for the storage of equipment and parts, such as lamps, horns, tires, etc. A part of the second floor is devoted to the storage and the shipping of parts to Branches and Agents.
Having seen the body placed upon the chassis, the visitor passes along toward the north. In succession are the chutes on which the crates of fenders are sent down from the fourth floor of the main factory building to the shipping platform. Here is also a chain elevator, which raises the wheels out of the freight cars to a runway on which they travel by gravity, into the third floor of the main factory. With this device it is possible for three or four men to unload about 6,000 wheels each day.
One passes the loading docks, where crews of six to eight men each, working as a unit, remove the bodies and wheels from the chassis, and load them into freight cars. So proficient are these loaders that a freight car is loaded in 20 minutes. Approximately 200 loaded freight ears are sent out every day.
The bodies are shipped separate from the chassis, being stood on end in one half of the car and protected from dust by coverings.
The chassis are put in the other end of the ear, the first one being carried in, minus the wheels, and placed in a diagonal position. Brackets of cast iron, for holding the axle to the floor, are made in the foundry. The front axle rests on the floor, and the rear axle rests against the opposite wall near the top of the ear. A block, with a hole which just fits the axle holds it against the wall.
Roof Heating System
The next chassis is brought in, and placed with its front axle opposite
the first one. In this way the chassis alternate until the car is full. The space
in the center of the car contains the fenders, and other removable parts of the
Just beyond the loading docks is the Foundry. The Foundry is one of the most interesting divisions of the entire Ford Plant, and ranks, perhaps, as one of the most unique in the country, as far as practice and equipment are concerned. As a general rule foundry practice has not shown the changes in an increase of production that machine departments have, but in the Ford foundry, due to standardization of parts and specialization on the one car, it has been possible to devise and install the unique equipment now used, which brings this department down to the plane of expense and up in the labor-saving efficiency prevailing throughout the entire plant.
Making Cylinder Moulds
This department works 24 hours a day, in three shifts of 8 hours each;
iron is being melted and poured continuously during the day and first night shifts.
An average of over 285 tons of iron is poured daily, and 300 tons of gray iron have
been poured in a single day. This tonnage is especially interesting, as it is
produced on a floor space of only 36,324 square feet.
All this iron is poured on over-head power driven mould carriers, which travel about 12 feet per minute. These mould carriers have suspended from them pendulum-like arms, on the lower end of which is a shelf. The moulders who make the moulds for the castings are stationed alongside of these conveyors; the moulding sand with which they fill the flasks is stored over-head in a hopper, the gate of which discharges directly onto the moulding machine. There are two moulders for each part, one making the "drag," or lower part of the mould, the other making the "cope," or the upper half. When these two halves of the mould are finished they are put together, or "closed" on the shelf of the conveyor, which carries the finished mould to the man who pours the molten metal. The molten metal is brought to this man's station by means of large ladles, suspended on a trolley on an I-beam track, running from the cupola through the entire length of the foundry. This does away with the necessity of carrying the ladle of iron a long distance, thus saving much time and lessening the liability to accidents.
While the mould is being poured it is in constant motion, and continues so from the pouring station to the end of the conveyor, where the casting is shaken out of the sand. The casting is thrown to one side to cool, the flasks are hung upon hooks on the arm of the conveyor, to be returned to the moulder, and the sand drops through a grating in the floor onto a belt conveyor; on this conveyor it is dropped on an elevator, raised overhead and "cut," or mixed with new sand, and passed on to another conveyor, which deposits it in the hoppers above referred to, ready for the moulder's use. In all this journey the sand is never shoveled.
Pouring Molten Iron into Cylinder Moulds
In casting cylinders, on account of their size and the care needed in setting the cores, a different style conveyor is used. The moulder, instead of putting the mould on a pendulum conveyor, places it upon a track, where it is moved by means of a chain. During this travel the various cores are set, and the moulds closed, moving to the point where the men with large ladles pour the mould. From this point it is transferred to another track. As it travels down this track, the casting is given an opportunity to "set," or cool. At the end of this line it is shaken out over a grating, and the sand handled in the same manner as on the smaller conveyors.
As soon as the castings have cooled sufficiently they are put into
great horizontal cylinders, called tumblers. Small metal stars are placed in these
tumblers with the castings, and when the tumbler is full it is started revolving. T
his shakes all the sand from the castings and they come out clean and bright. This
process continues for some time, depending on the size of the castings. Near the
tumblers are the grinding wheels, upon which are ground off the rough edges and
the castings put into shape for the machine shop They are sorted; inspected and
counted before removing from the foundry.
Another interesting feature is the handling of sand in the core room. The sand is handled entirely in a gallery built: above the room, equipped with storage bins and sand mixers. Over each core-maker's bench is a hopper, connected with the floor of the gallery. When the sand is mixed it is dropped through holes in the floor into the hoppers, which deposit the sand on the bench convenient for the core maker.
emsp; This core room contains perhaps the only endless chain core oven in this country in which are two endless chain conveyors. These have hanging upon them large sets of shelves, upon which the cores are placed for baking. It is impossible to over-bake or under-bake a core, as the rate of travel of the conveyor is fixed at a speed which leaves the core in the oven the correct length of time.
All the aluminum parts of the Ford car, as well as a large proportion of the brass, are also cast in this foundry.
The Ford process of heat-treating steel forgings before they are machined is one of the most scientific and accurate features in the manufacture of the Ford car. The famous Ford Vanadium steel is used throughout the construction of the car. It has been found from long and deep experimental work by the Ford Engineers that the structural condition of steel may be changed by the application of heat, and with certain conditions ascertained, by bringing a piece of steel to a certain temperature, and then setting the molecular condition in the steel by sudden cooling, or quenching, that the steel of a crank shaft can be made to stand impact, that the steel of a front axle can be made a most efficient agent to withstand vibration. Practically every forging in the Ford car is made of a special steel, for which a special formula of heat-treating has been worked out, in accordance with the work, or strain, the part must stand in the finished car.
Quenching Steel Forgings in Heat Treatment Operation
It is by the use of this high grade, scientifically heat-treated Ford
Vanadium steel that it is possible for the Company to manufacture a light weight
car, which has the ability to stand up under severe usage, and to sell at the low
price at which it is sold today.
The heat-treating department contains about 75 large furnaces, which consume from 5,000 to 6,000 gallons of fuel oil per day. It is into these furnaces that the various forgings are placed for heat-treating. In each one is introduced a pyrometer, connected electrically with a switchboard located in a separate building. This switchboard is very similar to those used in telephone exchanges. The operator takes the temperature reading of every furnace on his board about every minute. The furnace foreman is notified by the operator as to the temperature by means of small colored electric lights, located above the furnace. The lighting of all the colors at the same time is the signal to pull the heat, or in other words, extinguish the fires and empty the furnace. After the required heat has been reached, the forgings are allowed to either cool in the air, be covered with pulverized mica, or quenched in a special solution, as the case may require.
In this department are also located many grinding wheels and tumbling barrels, similar to those used in the foundry, so that the various forgings may be put in first-class condition before they are laid down in the machine shop.
The operations in the manufacture of the crank case, or engine pan, of the Ford motor is of interest for several reasons, and the visitor has the opportunity of viewing these processes.
The crank case in itself is interesting because it is made from drawn sheet steel, instead of cast aluminum, as was once thought necessary.
Cyanide Pots and Quenching Tanks
Pyrometers from which the Temperatures of the Furnaces are regulated
The presses on which these crank cases are drawn are especially worthy of note, for they weigh about 50 tons each, and exert a downward pressure of about 900 tons. It is necessary that this drawing be made in four operations; the first and second are particularly interesting, on account of their depths, which are 5-1/2 and 9-3/16 inches, respectively. After each drawing operation it has been found necessary that the ease be annealed, to restore the strained, or calloused surface produced at certain points by contact with the dies, to a soft ductile condition, to conform to the balance of the case, or in other words, to produce a homogeneous condition of the surface.
This belt carries the finished steel parts and scrap from the punch presses
This annealing is accomplished by a furnace through which the cases
are moved by a chain conveyor onto an elevator which raises them up through the
roof, and down again, depositing them near the press, which is to perform the
next drawing operation. While moving on this elevator the cases are cooled so
that they can be handled as soon as they are lowered.
After the drawing operations have been completed, the case is trimmed; the side arms, front end supports, radius rod support, are riveted and brazed to it, making a case as strong and solid, and yet as light, as it is possible to make.
Near these crank case presses are located several hundred punch and drawing presses of various sizes. These presses blank out and draw from sheet steel of special analysis, a large number of parts, (which in ordinary practice, are made from castings or forgings), carrying the same strength, but also very much lighter in weight.
The interesting feature of this department is the arrangement of the presses, which enables all finished parts, as well as the scrap steel, to be deposited upon a traveling belt conveyor, at the end of which are stationed men who sort the various parts, and place them in proper receptacles. By this arrangement it is possible to place the presses closer together than could be done if it were necessary to leave aisles large enough for trucking the material to and from the presses, effecting a great saving in floor space.
The visitor has now bad the opportunity of viewing all the more important operations in the manufacture of Ford Motor Cars.
While the Company has specialized in methods, material and machinery, and a single model of car, it is also, through its Sociological Department and the Ford Profit-Sharing Plan, specializing in MEN.
Improved Sleeping Quarters---the Result of Investigators' Suggestions
SOCIOLOGICAL AND PROFIT-SHARING
ON January 12th, 1914, the Ford Motor Company made the startling
announcement that during the ensuing year it would share $10,000,000 of its profits
with employees. The idea Mr. Ford had in mind was to help the men to a "LIFE,"---not
a mere "LIVING."
When the Profit-Sharing Plan was put into operation, an investigation was made by the Company, into the efficiency, moral standing and living conditions of every employee in the entire plant.
At the outset a corps of about 200 men (and this force was purposely made large at the beginning, so that the best qualified for the work might ultimately be selected), picked for their peculiar fitness as judges of human nature---men who had made a success of running their departments,---was organized and put to work gathering facts and figures with reference to every employee of the Company. They consulted every available source of information---churches, fraternal organizations, the Government, family bibles, passports---everything that would give the truth about the men was scrutinized. They also gave advice to the employees as to their living conditions, and the method of handling their money.
No man was urged to change his mode of living if he did not willingly so elect. The work of the Investigator is not to pry into family affairs, from a meddlesome standpoint, but rather to know the men, and to help those who are the kind that desire to seize opportunities, but for various reasons are unschooled and unskilled in being able to seize the best opportunities when they present themselves.
We find that there is only a small percentage of our men that need such help and constant reminding, for just as soon as a man understands our work, and the life worth while, he needs no help.
Insanitary Dining Room found on First Investigation
Some "doubting Thomases" thought this share of profits is given with "a
string tied to it;" that the employee must deposit his money in certain banks; that he
must own a home; and that the Investigators compel the employees to do certain things.
The Ford Motor Company has nothing to sell, except its manufactured products and would not influence its employees, nor allow its Investigators to influence any employee to spend his money in any way whatsoever. The employees are at liberty to place their money in any banks they choose. For the best interests of the men, however, the Company does suggest, simply, that their savings be placed in a State or National Bank, because they will be safest there. Or, to prepare for a rainy day, that the money be invested in a home or good property.
Undesirable Home Surroundings found on First Investigation
As a matter of fact, there is not one solitary thing that an employee
"MUST DO" or "MUST HAVE" to entitle him to share in the profits. Manhood and
thrift are the only requisites. A share of the profits is given to every employee
who is married, living with and taking good care of his family; to every single
man, more than 22 years of age, who has proved to be thrifty and of good habits,
and to every man less than 22 years old, also to each woman, who is the sole
support of next of kin or blood relation.
The share of profits that each employee receives is distinct from his wages. Throughout the Plan, the design is to give to the man who is getting the least wages the largest share of profits. This can readily be seen from the wages, share of profits, and total daily income listed below:
|Wage Rate per Hour||Profit-Sharing Rate per Hour||Total Income per Hour||Total Income per Day|
The above schedule does not refer to foremen and office employees, who
are taken care of by a somewhat different arrangement.
Simultaneous with the installation of the Profit-Sharing Plan the working day was cut from 9 to 8 hours duration; where it is necessary to work more than 8 hours extra shifts are put on.
A great many instances of economic benefit to the Company, as a result of the inauguration of the Profit-Sharing Plan, showing the appreciation of the men, have developed, entirely as a surprise to the Company.
For instance, immediately after the Plan became effective, there was a voluntary increase of from 15% to 20% in the production. A better feeling between employee and employer had arisen; employees have shown a greater interest in their work.
Representative Home of Ford Employee at time of Second Investigation
Eemsp;Too much cannot be said of the real benefits to the employees themselves,
from an efficiency standpoint as well as in the improved domestic conditions, which
necessarily promote happiness. This happiness and lack of worry is manifested plainly
in the shop, both in quality and quantity of the product.
Improvement in living conditions has been especially marked, chiefly among the foreign-born employees, who represent quite a percentage of the force. Since the inauguration of the Profit-Sharing Plan, due to the advice of the Investigators on home conditions, between 10,000 and 11,000 families have moved to better quarters. This can be readily seen in a comparison of the tabulations of the first, second and third investigations of home conditions, in which the surroundings of the employee and his family have been divided into three classes, good, fair and bad.
|No. 1||No. 2||No. 3|
In considering the third tabulation, allowance must necessarily be made
for the more than 4,000 new employees included. These men have not been with the
Company long enough to share in the profits, and brought their troubles with them.
The remarkable thing is that the percentage of "Good" and "Fair" held their own so
well, when it is known that most of the new men were financially pressed when going
to work, and so could hardly be expected to live in the best kind of homes.
The improvement that has resulted from a year and a half of the Profit-Sharing is beyond the greatest expectations. There has been a gain in bank deposits of 205%; in homes owned 99%; the value of homes has increased from $468,230 to $933,524; the value of homes being bought on contract has increased from $3,282,331 to $5,584,828, on which the total amount paid has increased from $1,111,258 to nearly $2,200,100.
The accompanying pictures show some typical cases of "Before" and "After" and need no particular explanation, as the point is clear. An interesting feature in connection with the first picture is that this crowded bedroom was in a cellar, which at times was flooded, making it necessary for the occupants to frequently walk through water to go to bed. At times the water was so deep that it was necessary to raise the bed on tin cans, which may be seen in the illustration.
In visiting the homes of foreigners, the investigators explain to the people, through an interpreter if necessary, the joy and healthful advantage of cleanliness and order, and as in one of the pictures, try to impress this fact especially upon the housewife. Books of photographs showing the desirable home conditions are very often used to good advantage.
In one of the other pictures is shown a mother and five children. The father had been out of employment for eight months, and they found it necessary to sell what little furniture they had, in order to be able to buy food, leaving only a few of the absolute necessities, which can be seen in this picture. The two little boys had been compelled to work in the sugar beet fields of the State, in order that the family might live, for the wages of the father were not sufficient to keep the family clothed and fed. This case was reported to one of the Company's Investigators, who are instructed to be on the lookout for cases of extreme need. In this instance the father was given employment in the factory, and a sum of money was given to the Investigator, with which he was to remove the family to better quarters, and make them comfortable. The money was not deducted from the father's wages. Furthermore, for a couple of weeks the father was permitted to draw his wages each day, until the necessary articles of clothing and food could be procured. There is another phase to this work that is very interesting, which arises from Mr. Ford's firm conviction that the Company can take men out of any Penitentiary and by employment in the factory, make self-respecting, law-abiding citizens of them. There are, at the present time, a number of such men, as well as a number of paroled men, working in the shops, all of whom are making good, and bear excellent records, which proves conclusively that if a man is treated in man fashion, given the practical recognition in human equality; given equal opportunity and all around freedom in initiative and living-the "square deal"-he will respond like a man.
Taking into consideration the results of the Profit-Sharing Plan from its many angles, the raising of the standard of manhood, as well as the standard of home life, we feel very much gratified that the Plan has proved such a success.
One phase of the work of the Company's Legal Department, in connection with the Profit-Sharing Plan, is to give the workmen advice that they may be able to help themselves. This department will act as advisor to any employee, pointing out the right way for any employee who needs legal advice, but never dictating to him. This line of work embraces the inspection of contracts, appraising property values, and the examination of titles to property. This advice is given gladly, and without charge, and judging from the number of bad contracts that unscrupulous people have been caught trying to force on our employees the work is bearing fruit.
When the work of the investigators was started, a serious problem presented
itself. It was found that a large percentage of the employes in the factory could not
speak the English language, which necessitated the employment of a large number of
interpreters to work with the Investigators.
It had been ascertained that it is almost essential that a workman have a knowledge of English, from a "Safety-First" standpoint, so that he be able to understand the explanations of safety devices in the factory, as well as to thoroughly understand the requirements of his work. This knowledge also helps to make better citizens, and protects them against the many pitfalls which lurk in the path of the unwary foreigner.
To remedy these conditions the Ford English School was organized. That the men appreciate what is being done for them is clearly shown by the number of letters received from employees, which are sent without solicitation, and express, in good English, the sincere obligation they feel toward the work, which is enabling them to enjoy the advantages and comforts previously unknown to them. After careful investigation into the methods of teaching, the plan of Dr. Peter A. Roberts was adopted. This plan is very similar to the well-known Berlitz system, the early lessons of which are particularly adapted to home study, and teaching in the Ford shops. Following is given the first lesson under this plan:
ENGLISH FOR COMING AMERICANS
Getting Up In The Morning
|awake||: I awake from sleep.|
|open||: I open my eyes.|
|look||: I look for my watch.|
|find||: I find my watch.|
|see||: I see what time it is.|
|is||: It is six o'clock.|
|must get up||: I must get up.|
|throw back||: I throw back the bed clothes.|
|get out||: I get out of bed.|
|put on||: I put on my pants.|
|put on||: I put on my stockings and shoes.|
|wash||: I wash myself.|
|comb||: I comb my hair.|
|put on||: I put on my collar and necktie.|
|put on||: I put on my vest and coat.|
|open||: I open the door of my bedroom.|
|go down||: I go down stairs.|
|Copyright, 1909, by the International
committee of Young Men's Christian Associations.|
Published by the ASSOCIATION PRESS, 124 East 28th Street, New York.
In using these lessons the teacher reads the verbs,
having the class repeat them after him until they are fixed in their minds. After
this the teacher reads the sentence, the class repeating it after him. So that the
thought to be conveyed can be clearly understood, in reading this sentence the
teacher goes through the motions of the thought conveyed, or has the object referred
to in his hands. As an example, in the fifth sentence of this lesson the teacher
will have a watch in his hand, and goes through the motion of consulting it. This
pantomime interpretation of the lessons thoroughly instills in the student's mind
the practical illustrations of the verb, or name of the article in the lesson.
When the school was organized there was a single instructor, and only a score or so of students. Today there are more than 100 instructors, and over 1,600 students. The instructors are all employees in the factory, composed of foremen, machine operators, clerks, and plain workmen, who voluntarily give their time to this commendable work.
Many types come before the instructors. There is the type which has a good education in his native tongue, but knows no English; and the type that has a fair education in the mother-tongue, and knows a few disconnected English words, usually slang. Then there is the group which possesses little, if any, education, either native or English. The first and second classes progress rather rapidly, some of the men being able to read, write and speak English with a fair degree of correctness at the end of three months, though the average time for completing the course is six months. One class, set aside by itself, is very slow, completing but ten lessons in ten months.
Taking industrial motion pictures, operator suspended from traveling crane
The pictures with which this booklet is illustrated were all made by
the Photographic Department of the Company, and are but a few of the thousands on
file, portraying details of every operation in the manufacture of a Ford ear. The
department is completely equipped to take and produce motion picture films of the
The growth of this department, in its own peculiar field, has kept pace with the growth of the Company as an industrial factor. But a few years ago, this department was an incident only. The quarters were small, the staff was composed of two men, and the entire work was confined to making photographs of the cars and parts for advertising literature.
A modern studio is now maintained on the 4th floor of the factory---the staff of skilled operators numbering 18.
The moving picture portion of the Company's work is, in volume, the largest conducted by any industrial concern. As a matter of interest, it is estimated that the operations of this department in the "movie" field are equal in magnitude to the efforts of many of the better known film-producing studios which specialize in such work. And, large as the scope of operations already is, it is still growing, in response to an increasing demand for pictures of the Ford factory as well as of events of general interest.
The Ford Animated Weekly now covers as wide a range of current news
events as the average news service. For examplfpix/ the launching of the U.S.S. Arizona,
the largest battleship afloat; the departure of the Liberty Bell for the Panama-Pacific
Exposition and like events were filmed for the Ford Weekly.
Matters of interest throughout the state and in the city of Detroit are given prompt attention. Conventions, dedication ceremonies of importance, parades, strikes, fires and everything which holds interest for the public finds its way into the Ford films.
Many moving pictures of work in the Ford factory have been made and have been received with eager interest wherever shown. Some idea of the scope and circulation of the "Ford Animated Weekly" may be gained from the statement that they are being shown simultaneously from Maine to California, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, and also in foreign countries.
The films are distributed through Ford branches to Ford agents, and by the agents to theaters in their respective territories. It is estimated that the weekly audiences of Ford films number close to 3,500,000 people, as, at the present time, something more than 500 miles of our films are being shown daily in this country.
In addition to the Ford Animated Weekly motion pictures have been completed and put in circulation descriptive of Ford factory operations, The Assembly of Ford ears and The Ford Sociological System.
1,000 Assembled Chassis---an ordinary day's work
The Ford Motor Company was organized June 16, 1903. The history of the greatest automobile production is given below, recording one of the most phenomenal industrial developments in the world's history.
|In 1903-4, to Sept 30, there were made and sold||1,708 Ford cars;|
|In 1905 the Company built and sold||1,695 Ford cars;|
|In 1906, there were made and sold a total of||1,695 Ford cars;|
|In 1907. the total of cars made and sold was||8,423 Ford cars;|
|In 1908, the production and sales reached||6,398 Ford cars;|
|In 1909, the phenomenal growth began with||10,607 Ford cars;|
|In 1910, the production jumped to a total of||18,664 Ford cars;|
|In 1911, there were made and sold a total of||34,528 Ford cars;|
|In 1912, production more than doubled, with||78,440 Ford cars;|
|In 1913, a new high water mark was reached with||168,220 Ford cars|
|1914 saw an even greater triumph achieved by||248,307 Ford cars;|
|While 1915 crowned all efforts with a total of||308,213 Ford cars;|
|The minimum production planned for this year||500,000 Ford cars.|
|(Aug.1, 1915, to Aug. 1, 1916)|
The million mark was passed October 1, 1915, on which date there were 1,006,835 Ford cars in service.
The following condensed data is based on a production
of 308,213 cars. If a production of, 500,000 cars is accomplished in 1916, the
various materials entering into their construction and the facilities required for
their handling will be increased proportionately over the figures given below.
56,218 freight ears were needed to handle material and product
A loaded 50-ear train left the yards every three hours.
Two carloads of spark plugs were used every month.
125,500 tons of steel were needed in the cars.
7,480,470 pounds of hair were used in the cushions.
34,633,500 square feet of rubber cloth material in the tops.
1,232,852 each of wheels and tires.
2,661,120 feet of Vanadium steel shafting and axles.
1,251,360 feet of exhaust pipe.
1,725,000 square feet of plate glass in windshields.
6,000,000 pounds of brass in Ford radiators.
36,000,000 feet of copper tubing in these radiators.
4,200,000 pounds of steel in Ford magnetos.
10,625 miles of wiring used in magnetos.
1,307,700 pounds of solder entered into Ford cars.
2,682,000 square feet galvanized metal in gasoline tanks.
45,000 horse power developed by new engines and generators.
40 tons of coal per hour required for power.
2,200,000 cubic feet of gas used by engines each day.
1-1/2 miles of conveyor tracks make rapid assembly possible.
150 gallons of machine oil for lubrication, each hour.
1,500 gallons of fuel oil used hourly, for heat-treating.
Average number of Ford employees throughout the world in 1915 totaled about 31,500.
FORD MOTOR BAND
The Company maintains a Band of 55 pieces, which was organized in the
fall of 1910. All the members of the band, including the Director, are employees of
the Company. It is very interesting to note the large number of vocations represented
in this organization, as by far the largest percentage of the members is employed in
the shops, as machine operators, bench men, factory clerks, tool makers, pattern
makers and foremen.
The Company, each year, arranges a series of concerts and provides an auditorium, so that the entire Ford organization may have the privilege and pleasure of hearing high class and light music at no cost to themselves, as all expense of maintaining the band is borne by the Company. The program for these concerts is so arranged by the Director as to please the lovers of high class, as well as those of the lighter and more popular music.
The members of this organization are from 15 different nationalities, part of whom have come from some of the most prominent musical organizations of this country and Europe.
FORD BRANCHES AND ASSEMBLING PLANTS
The production of 308,213 finished Ford cars between August 1, 1914,
and August 1, 1915, marks a record, and in point of numbers is more than the output
of all other companies combined, for the same period. This great output would be
impossible, were it not for the Ford Assembling Plants and Branch Houses, twenty-eight
in number, located in the principal cities of the United States. To these assembling
plants are shipped parts for Ford cars in carload lots, and the cars are assembled
at the different plants and supplied direct to dealers in the surrounding territory.
While the factory at Detroit is able to average 1,200 cars per day of eight hours,
the assistance of the assembling plants makes possible the attainment of a daily
average of approximately 2,000 cars.
Where the Ford assembling plants and branches are located, they are a distinct addition to the red blood of the industrial life of the community, for they employ from 200 to 700 workmen each, at the best wages. A large portion of the employees in the outside plants are profit-sharers. The Ford branches, too, occupy an important place in the commercial life of the cities, for through them, millions of dollars' worth of business is transacted yearly. It is estimated that the value of buildings alone, for branches and assembling plants is in excess of $13,000,000.
All this intricate organization and investment of funds is designed to accomplish two objects. First, the system makes it possible to ship parts from the main factory to definite points for assembly, obtaining a more rapid and more economic distribution. Second, the location of the assembling plants aids in giving prompt, reliable and economical service to Ford owners, besides very greatly reducing the freight costs for delivery of cars, etc. The strategic location of the assembling plants makes for a handy distribution of parts and supplies, and there are no vexatious delays for the owner of a Ford car while a part is forwarded from the home factory.
In addition to the twenty-eight assembling plants and fifty branch houses in the United States, there are fourteen branch houses in foreign countries. These are important, for the Ford car is "universal" in use and distribution, and "Service First" is as important in South America, or Australia, or Europe, as in America.
Some idea of the lengths to which the Company has gone in providing adequate service for Ford owners may be gained from the knowledge that the value of supplies and accessories in the hands of Ford branches, assembling plants and agents in the United States alone aggregate more than $12,000,000. This is more than many automobile companies have invested in their entire plant and business.
Illustrations in miniature follow, showing twenty-eight of the Ford assembling. plants, with the names of the cities where located, and two sales and service branches, St. Paul and Washington---giving a most practical vision of the magnitude of the business of the Ford Motor Company.
Ford Factories and Branches
Ford Factory, Detroit-Parent Plant
Capacity 500.000 cars annually
Ford Factory, Ford, Ontario, Canada
Capacity 50,000 cars annually
Ford Factory, Manchester, England
Capacity 15.000 cars annually
American Branches and Service Stations
|Atlanta---465 Ponce de Leon Ave.||Long Island City---564 Jackson Ave.|
|Boston---567 Boylston St.||Los Angeles---2060 E. Seventh St.|
|The Bronx (New York City)---607 Bergen Ave.||Louisville---2400 S. Third St.|
|Brooklyn---1476 Bedford Ave.||Memphis---495 Union Ave.|
|Buffalo---1050 Main St.||Milwaukee---143 Eighth St.|
|Cambridge---Charles River Rd.||Minneapolis---420 Fifth St. North|
|Charlotte, N.C.---222 Tryon St., N.||Nashville---533 S. Broadway|
|Chicago---3915 Wabash Ave.||Newark---Central Ave. at Halsey St.|
|2526 Michigan Blvd.||New York---1723 Broadway|
|Cincinnati---660 Lincoln Ave.||607 Bergen Ave.|
|911 Race St.||Oklahoma City---205 W. First St.|
|Cleveland---11610 Euclid Ave.||Omaha---1916 Harney St;|
|Columbus---427 Cleveland Ave.||Pasadena---89 North Marengo Ave.|
|Council Bluffs---612 So. Main St||Philadelphia---2700 North Broad St.|
|Dallas---2800 Williams St.||Pittsburgh---Baum Blvd. at Morewood|
|Davenport---324 W. Fourth St.||Portland, Ore.---48I E. Eleventh St.|
|Denver---920 S. Broadway||Reading---305 Greenwich St.|
|1551 Broadway||St. Louis---4100 Forest Park Blvd.|
|Detroit---1550 Woodward Ave.||St. Paul---117 University Ave.|
|Ft. Worth---First and Commerce Sts.||San Diego---1040 First St.|
|Fargo---Broadway at G. N. R. R.||San Francisco---2905 21st St.|
|Houston---4006 Harrisburg Road||Scranton---324 Washington Ave.|
|Indianapolis---1315 E. Washington St.||Seattle---724 Fairview Ave.|
|Jacksonville---16 East Ashley St.||Syracuse---428 E. Jefferson St.|
|Kansas City, Kan.---744 Minnesota Ave.||Utica---331 Bleecker St.|
|Kansas City, Mo.---1710 Grand Ave.||Washington, D. C.---613 G, St. N.W.|
|Winchester Ave. at 11th St||Wichita---2l 8 W. Douglas Ave.|
|Yonkers---219 So. Broadway|
|Ford Assembling Plants are located in the following
Atlanta Buffalo Cambridge Chicago Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Dallas Denver Detroit Fargo Houston Indianapolis Kansas City Long Island City Los Angeles Louisville Memphis Milwaukee Minneapolis Oklahoma City Omaha Philadelphia Pittsburgh Portland, Ore. San Francisco Seattle St. Louis
Foreign Branches and Service Stations
|Bordeaux, France---63 Rue de Ia Fondaudege||Melbourne, Aus.---103 Williams St.|
|Buenos Aires, Argentina---Calle Lavalle 1702||Montreal, Que.---119 Laurier Ave. E.|
|Calgary, Alta.---127 11th Ave. E.||Paris, France---61 Rue de Cormeilles|
|Hamilton, Ont.---74 John St.||Saskatoon, Ssslg.---1st and 25th Sts.|
|London, Eng.---55 Shaftesbury Ave.||St. John, N.B.---Rothesay Avenue.|
|London, Ont.---680 Waterloo St.||Toronto, Ont.---672 Dupont St.|
|Vancouver, B. C.---1531 15th Ave. W.||Winnipeg, Manitoba---81 Water St.|
1136 Whitehall Bldg., 17 Battery Place, New York
There are Ford Agents in all other Principal Cities