Early 1909
Part # Factory # Description
----- 553 Kingston 5-ball, no choke

4100 553 Kingston. Same as above. The factory number was shown as T553A on the April 6, 1909 blueprint.
----- ----- Buffalo, used until about June

4100 553 Kingston. With choke in hot air pipe to front of exhaust manifold.
----- ----- Buffalo. Used from November 1909 until about March 1910
4150 ----- Holley. (“1910 Holley”) Both “pot metal” and bronze castings. With choke in hot air pipe to front of exhaust manifold.

4100 553 Kingston, same as 1910
4500 ----- Holley. An oddly-shaped model with a single air valve located in a cylindrical housing at the rear of the upper casting. Air intake similar to the 1910 model (at the bottom).
4550 553 Holley H-1. Two-screw top cover plate. Early versions had a built-in clamp for the hot air stove. The clamp was eliminated in later production 1911.

----- ----- Kingston “Six-Ball” used in limited numbers.
4550 553 Holley H-1 (Same as late 1911). Later versions had three screws on the top cover plate, and came with and without the hot air pipe clamp at the intake. The “1913” Model S may have appeared in later 1912 production.

4400 553D Kingston “Y” (“Four-ball”).Adopted March 3, 1913 on blueprint.
4450 553D Holley “S” Two-screw top cover plate. Choke shaft was vertical with lever on the top of the air inlet.

4400 553D Kingston “Y” Same as 1913 Kingston
4450 553D Holley “G” Three-screw top cover plate. 1914 production had “Pats. Pend” cast in the brass cover plate.

6100 553EKingston “L” Bronze casting. Fuel inlet at the bottom of the float bowl. Air valve hinge pin cover on side away from the engine.
6100 553E Kingston “L2” Bronze casting. Steel float bowl. Fuel inlet was now at the side of the body where the hinge pin cover was on the model L. The hinge pin cover screw was moved to the engine side of the body.
6040 553D Holley “G” Three-screw top cover plate. Most production had “Pat. Dec. 22, 1914” cast in the cover plate.
NOTE: Factory blueprints show the Kingston L as “L1”, and the Holley G both as f/n T553A.

6100 553E Kingston “L2.” Double choke arm after 1918.
6040 553E Holley “G”
6040 553A2 Holley “G” Brass casting until about 1919, then cast iron, including the cover plate. Minor modifications over the years. The iron models had an extended choke arm for the choke pull rod used in the starter cars, and the word “Detroit” no longer was cast in the cover plate.

6150 553A1 Kingston “L4” Adopted January 13, 1922. Early versions had a bronze body and a rather rounded float bowl. Later versions were cast iron.
6200 553A3 Holley “NH” Off-center fuel drain. Early design used cork float and had a brass vent screw. The air passage was larger and more direct than in the later models. The later design had a “dip” in the air passage, a simple vent hole under the brass nameplate, and a brass float.
The Ford “F,” which was built under license from Holley, was introduced in late 1920. The Ford unit had the later venturi design, while the Holley used the “straight-through” type. Both types were used in production.

6150 553A1 Kingston “L4” On May 26, 1923 the brass float was adopted for the L4. Around 1924 the L4 was given a new float bowl with a more cylindrical appearance (the bottom corners were “squarer”) and a larger retaining nut.
6200B 553A4 Holley “NH” Center fuel drain. This carburetor was also made by Ford, under license from Holley and with the “Ford” name on the plate. The Ford “F” was now labeled “NH.”
NOTE: In 1925 the choke levers on both the Kingston and Holley were stamped with the two arms offset from each other to prevent interference between the dash choke rod and the radiator pull rod.

6150B 553B1 Kingston “L4” With “U-joint” needle valve.
6200C 553B2 Holley “NH” With “U-joint” needle valve.
6250 2201S Holley Vaporizer (Limited number of cars in 1925)

6250 2201S Holley Vaporizer. Standard in 1927 models. Also made by Ford, under license. These units came with varying nameplates but were otherwise alike.
----- ----- Kingston Regenerator (Limited use, in 1927)

No hot air pipe used.
A cast “stove” of apparently two styles and attached to the front of the exhaust manifold, was connected to a pipe which ran down to the air intake of the carburetor. Carburetors were now supplied with an angled air inlet to match this pipe, and also now had integral choke valves.
A simple pipe and stove combination which fit under the rear part of the exhaust manifold and clamped to the air intake at the rear of the carburetor. The pipes were castings of iron until 1912 but then changed to sheet metal stampings.
A sheet metal type which fitted over the rear of the exhaust manifold and was secured with a steel arm which was held by the rear manifold stud nut.
Similar in style and location to the previous type except that the metal was formed in such a manner that the need for the separate support arm was eliminated. A hole in the metal now fitted over the manifold stud.
Cars supplied with the Vaporizer carburetors did not use hot air intake pipes.
First 2500 1909

Made of 1/8-inch steel, side rails had riveted reinforcing plates inside the channel. Otherwise similar to regular 1909 production. Painted body color.

There were more changes to the first 2500 Model T frames than we thought.

Model T frames have a front corner or more correctly, “Frame Front End Spacer.” This is the piece that is riveted to the top edge of the frame rail in two places under the radiator, extends down and covers the “U”-shape of the frame rail and then on to the front cross member where it is riveted in place directly below the frame rail and another a bit further down the front cross member. This was not the original design on the first 2500 cars.

The original design called for a T-319 Front end spacer (right) and T-318 (left) that was nothing more than a piece of 1/8 inch steel bent into an “L” shape. It attached with two rivets—one at the top of the side rail under the radiator and one on the front cross member. The original drawing is dated January 3, 1908. Interestingly, it is marked (faintly) obsolete October 14, 1908. Similarly its replacement’s drawing, T-319B, is marked as being adopted on October 13, 1908. I have checked through all of my pictures showing the front cross members of 2500 era cars and ALL of them show the later T-319-B front end spacer EXCEPT one. That is the picture of a Model T at the Piquette plant after its return from a trip with Henry Ford in late September and early October 1908. This picture shows the earlier T-319 style front end spacers and they are really quite clear.

It looks to me that shortly after Henry Ford returned from the hunting trip in 1908 they decided that they needed to beef up the joint between the front cross member and the frame side rails. So they redesigned the T-319 and modified the roughly 2500 frames sitting in the yard at Piquette to use the new design. So not only did they add the fishplates (inside reinforcements) to the frame rails, they also changed these front end spacers. Apparently they had to do a lot of modifications to make the first 2500 frames useable!

Trent Boggess

Frame Manufacturers
Michigan Stamping Company (M.S.B. inside a pennant on the frame).
Parrish and Bingham (P&B inside a circle)
Short rear cross-member with forged brackets for body and fender support. Painted body color.
Same as 1909, painted body color until sometime in 1910, then painted black thereafter. (Date unknown.) After 1910 the rear body support was a separate forging and no longer a part of the rear fender iron.
Initially the same as the 1911 chassis. About January 1913 two additional rear body brackets were added for the Touring body, under the rear door ahead of the rear seat. These brackets were used only in 1913 and only on the Touring bodies.
Longer rear cross-member, beginning about 271,425 (May 1913), eliminating the forged body brackets. Early rear cross-members were relatively flat across the top surface; not raised as in the later versions. While using the same parts, holes were added for the new front body brackets in mid-1916, and for the battery bracket, starter switch, and battery cable support beginning in 1919. Beginning about March 19, 1919, the “Ford” logo began to be imprinted on the front cross member.
Same as earlier but pressed-steel running board brackets replaced the riveted-in-place forgings used earlier. The holes used for the forged brackets continued at least until 1923. Beginning in June 1920 the front cross-member was made of heavier steel. During 1925 the brake lever quadrant was modified. Instead of four rivets holding it to the frame, only two were now used. This new quadrant continued until the end of Model T production in 1927.
Rear cross-member much longer to accommodate new body and fenders. The rear cross-member was a simple pressed channel in early production, then was made with a stronger flanged design. In early calendar 1926 heavier steel was used for increased strength. A letter to chassis suppliers, dated February 28, 1926, specified the metal to be the same as the truck chassis (Type “L” steel, .180-.200 inches thick). The front cross-member had added brackets to support the fenders.
Accession 94. Walter Fishleigh files.
“Motor number was first placed on frame side member R.H. on Dec. 12, 1925. Motor No. 12,861,044. Information obtained from Mr. Burns, Final Assy., Highland Park.”
Some 1909-11 cars came with factory-installed Kingston Master Vibrators.
Part # Factory # Description
N1520 ----- Heinze. Pre-production 1909 with terminals on the bottom of the box. This was the same box that was used on the later Model S Fords. Part number is an N-R-S number. This box was discontinued before car number 1.
1909 to early 1911
4200 ----- Kingston. Used 4215 coils. Rear terminals.
4250 ----- Jacobson-Brandow. Used 4256 coils.
Note: Ford parts books show the name as Jacobson-Brandon but the actual name was Jacobson-Brandow.
4660----- Kingston. Used 4238 or 4713 coils, 2-9/16 x 2-5/16 x 5-3/4”
4250 ----- Jacobson-Brandow. Used 4256 coils
4600 ----- Heinze. First used in 1911. Used 4611 coils 2-5/16 x 3-1/16 x 5”
4660 ----- Kingston. (Few used. May have been superseded by 4675 in 1912.) Used 4713 coils, 2-9/16 x 2-5/16 x 5-3/4”
4675 1383 Kingston
4600 ----- Heinze
----- ----- Jacobson-Brandow. Not cataloged. Smaller than 1911 type.
4706 1383 Kingston. Used 4713 coils, 5-3/4 x 2-9/16 x 2-5/16”
4600 ----- Heinze. Used 4611 coils, 5 x 3-1/16 x 2-5/16”
----- ----- K-W. Used 4681 coils, 5-3/8 x 3-1/4 x 2-1/4”. This was a wooden box and the coils had the contacts in a different location from the later types.
4725 1383 K-W and Ford. Metal box, non-sloping lid. Individual coils supplied by K-W, Heinze, and Ford. Used 4732 or 5007 standard-size coils, 5 x 3-1/2 x 2- 1/8”
4725 1383 Ford. Same as 1913 Ford/K-W box. Used standard Ford “brass-top” coils, 5 x 3-1/2 x 2-1/8” supplied by K-W, Heinze or Ford. Switch cover was brass with black background.
4725 1383 Ford. Sloping lid. Lid was one-piece in 1915 and 1916 but was changed to assembled type in late 1916. The switch had a brass escutcheon plate as on the 1914 but was changed to a plain black steel cover with no plate by 1916. The steel cover was stamped “Mag-Off-Bat.”
Coils are the “brass-topped” K-W type, used from 1914 until about 1917. About 1917 Ford began using coils with “plastic” (actually a wheat gluten with an asbestos binder) cases (in addition to the wooden type) but these were apparently discontinued during 1918. The wooden-cased coils, now without the metal tops, were used thereafter.
4725 1383 Ford. Non-starter cars. The same as in 1918.
4725B ----- Ford. Starter cars (no switch on box).
5000 1383 Ford. Same as 4725, non-starter cars.
5001 1383B Ford. Same as 4725B, starter cars.
5001 1383B Ford. All cars (switch was on dashboard)
5001B 1383C Ford. Mounted on the engine, except for early 1926 TT trucks.


K-W became the major supplier in 1913. The early K-W coil was 5-3/8 x 3-1/4 x 2-1/4” with the location of the contacts lower on the side, and the bottom located near the rear of the box. The top was a flat sheet of brass held to be box with six round-head brass screws. These coils used the standard vibrator components.

Sometime in early calendar 1913 the box was redesigned to the standard (5 x 3-1/2 x 2-1/8”) size with the contacts in the standard location. These coils were made by K-W and Ford. The two sides were flat pieces of wood, glued on one side, and nailed with ten brads on the other. The brass top was held with six screws. The hardware on the top was all brass.

The location of the nails used to hold the cover to the box was rearranged, changing the number required from ten to eight.

Removed two center holes for the vibrator base (the brass top) screws., changing the number required from six to four.

Removed notes specifying the stationary side of the box to be glued in place, and the cover to be held in place with eight nails. Also specified the stationary side of the box to be tongue and grooved in place; the cover to be tongue and grooved on one end and two sides and to be secured with two nails at the lower end. The nails carried the factory number of T6744.

Removed “experimental” note from Machine and Die Casting Drawings for the composition coil unit boxes.

Design changes in the composition boxes. (The factory drawings are incomplete and do not indicate the nature of the changes.) Note: both wood and composition boxes were in production at the same time.

Wooden design. Removed holes for vibrator base screws and connecting wires from the top. Called for holes in the top for the vibrator and adjusting bolt, and four holes for vibrator bolts, short and long. The brass top is no longer used. The vibrator parts are now mounted directly on the black-painted top wood. The various screws and nuts are now steel.

Discontinued the composition coil boxes.

The name “Ford” is now burned in to the side of the box. The design of the vibrator is changed, eliminating the “grub” screw in the mounting bracket. The vibrator spring contact is still held with two screws.

The construction of the wood box is simplified. The tongue-and-groves are now larger (fewer in number).

Specified the name “Ford” in script to be placed on the edge of the piece that forms the top of the box; letters to be rolled in.

T6793A2 adopted as the new factory number, Ford design coils. T6793A1 (the older design) was designated for “outside design.” Note: the drawings survive. There is no detectable difference in the two types.

The vibrator components are again revised; the vibrator spring is now riveted to the mounting base.

Accession 94, Box 171, Ford Archives
Primary   212 turns
Secondary   16,600 turns
Ratio of windings   78 to 1
DC resistance Primary .295 ohms
  Secondary 3300 ohms
Inductance Primary .0033 henrys (secondary open)
    .0006 henrys (secondary shorted)
  Secondary 22 henrys (primary open)
    11.3 henrys (primary shorted)
Impedance at 133 cycles (25 mph) Primary 2.77 ohms (secondary open)
    .580 ohms (secondary shorted)
  Secondary 18.700 ohms (primary open)
    9.960 ohms (primary shorted)
Capacitor .40 -.45 mfd

See BODIES, PAINTS, or information under specific part or assembly.

(Also see Steering Column)

Two piece with “L” shaped adjuster, threaded on, at carburetor end.

Adjuster eliminated, rod now just a bent piece.

(on instrument panel)
Knob was cold rolled.

Knob was aluminum casting on steel rod.

Late 1925-1927
Aluminum knob which now turned to adjust the needle valve. A sliding sleeve arrangement closed the choke when the knob was pulled.

(Radiator to carburetor)
Factory number T-2000

Adopted. Made of 3/32” copper wire. Finger loop is just a bent circle 1-3/16” OD with end butted against itself

Changed length overall from 28-15/16 to 29”

Twist added on loop to prevent the loop from opening. Length increased to 29-1/2”

Changed the distance from the center of the carburetor hook to the bottom of the eye from 25-3/4 to 24-7/8. Overall length increased from 29-1/2 to 29-58”

Specified to be used to replace T2354 as priming rod for Holley and Kingston carburetors after rebending to fit.

Called for 1/4” offset at carburetor end. Brought drawing up to date by changing the diameter of the ring from 1-3/16 to 1-1/16” and the material from C.R. steel to basic wire (copper plated)

Changed length from 29-5/8 to 29-7/8”

Changed length from 29-5/8 to 29-7/8”

Changed length from 29-7/8 to 30-1/8”

Changed material from basic wire (copper plated) to coppered soft Bessemer wire.

Specified to be raven finished instead of copper plated

Changed name from carburetor shutter rod to priming rod

Changed material from soft Bessemer wire to CD Bright Bessemer wire (soft)

Specified material to be #1 Bessemer

Specified black enamel instead of raven finish

Changed material from cold drawn bright wire, Bessemer #1 (soft) to cold drawn wire, low carbon, open hearth.

T2000B Choke rod
(on radiator)
New design required for vaporizer

Specified black enamel instead of raven finish

Changed from old drawn bright wire, Bessemer #1 (soft) to Cold drawn Wire, low carbon, open hearth

Changed name from Priming Rod (to Choke Rod) and specified for 1927

Ball joint swivel joint at steering column end, threaded on control rod.

Swivel eliminated; now just a plain rod, bent to fit. (Both types were used in 1920-21.)

(These are the hand controls on the steering column)

Adopted for 1912. Handles to be brass plated and polished

Redesigned. Rubber knobs are removed and handles flattened and knurled.

Knurling removed and the handle is smooth.

Redesigned handles, now rounded. Still brass plated.

Dimensions (diameter) of rod stock now the same as valve stems so that the same stock could be used for either part.

Redesigned again. Copper and nickel plated and polished, for use on 1917 cars.

Specified to be zinc plated and polished.

Changed finish from zinc plate to nickel plate.

Added one-half inch to the top end, changing the distance from the bend from 3-3/4 to 4-1/4”

(Carburetor Adjuster)
Release data for F/N T-1357.

The part was originally a brass casting with a round four- screw base until September 22, 1910 when the part was changed to an elliptical based brass casting with two-screw mounting. On June 28, 1911 the part was changed from brass to cast iron and was to be polished and enameled. On July 27, 1911 (only 1 month later) it was changed again to a pressed steel stamping that was black enameled and made from hood support scrap.

There is no release data from late 1911 until 1916 but a note from a drawing on November 20, 1916 shows this part to be a flat oval plate (a true ellipse at this time), 16 gauge, black enameled and made from hood support scrap. On October 3, 1916 the plate was made from fender scrap.

The part remained black enameled until September 15, 1917 when the finish was changed to raven finish. At this same time the part was no longer a simple flat oval plate (16 gauge) but was made from 20 gauge material and had a formed raised edge to appear thicker. The change of material and a few small dimensional changes were not mentioned in this release info but a careful study of the drawings shows the dimension changes. The part remained unchanged substantially after that.

There were no further changes in the Releases after January 26, 1923 but the replacement part T-1357-R shows that on July 23, 1926 there was a change and the drawing for that date says the part is black enamel again.

This part was only used on cars with a wooden firewall (1909-early 1923.) The metal firewall, introduced in early 1923, eliminated the need for this escutcheon.

Early 1909

A wooden handle has been seen on a seemingly original two-lever '09, but this may have been a replacement part. Ford blueprints indicate the handle as being hard rubber, the same part as was used in the N-R-S models. The forged starting ratchet was riveted in place.

Handle was hard rubber, secured with a long bolt. The starting ratchet was still riveted in place but was now made of pressed steel.

Handle changed to aluminum late in the production year. Painted black enamel, including handle.

(Ford records indicate the change to the aluminum handle in January 1912 but seemingly original 1911-style cars have the aluminum handle.)

Aluminum handle the same as the later 1911 type (All black, including handle.) In February 1911, however, a letter read, “Removed ridges from outside of handle and added dimensions specifying the exact shape of same. Called for polish all over.” The ratchet was redesigned in late 1913 and now had a different configuration of the notches which engaged the starting pin on the crankshaft.

Handle changed to an iron sleeve, held with a rivet-like bolt. Later versions have been seen which used a riveted-in-place pin instead of the bolt. About 1919 the starting ratchet pin was changed to a rivet with a hole for a cotter pin. The pin was no longer riveted in place. The ratchet was changed from pressed steel to malleable iron. In 1915 the factory number and foundry trademark were added inside the ratchet. In 1918 the “Ford” was added, and in 1919 the “Ford” in script was sunk into the casting.

Handle a thin steel sleeve rolled into place on a formed crank.

Early cars (1909-11, approximately) could have been equipped with a Kingston Master Vibrator. Such cars used a modified dashboard, drilled to accommodate the master vibrator.

Brass trim on edges did not overlap the wood. Additional piece added on top if windshield was used, this piece varying in design and shape.

Same as 1909 but all had windshield and added piece.

Similar in design to 1910 but brass trim now overlapped the wood panel. Continued the separate top section.

One-piece design eliminated the add-on top section used earlier, beginning about April 1912. The hole for the steering column was located 3/4” lower than on the earlier models due to the change in the steering column angle. NOTE: Many boards of this era were made for right or left-hand drive, with the carburetor adjustment hole drilled on both sides. The patent plate covered the hole. The board was just reversed for right-hand drive; and the components mounted on the rear-facing side. A slot from the steering column hole to the engine clearance cutout allowed the placement of the firewall without removing the steering column.

One-piece design. Flat brass trim. Now mated with the body metal. Steering column slot of 1912 discontinued. The slot between the steering column and the engine cutout was discontinued during 1914.

Wood, painted black, outside cowl. Rain gutter added at cowl in 1919.

Steel, used with low hood for short time beginning about February 1923. Both the wood and the steel were used concurrently for a time. On April 7, 1923, a factory letter said that all production was then with the steel firewall.

Steel, larger for higher hood.

Steel, integral with the body. Trucks continued the 1925 type.

Believed to have been leather.

Harness leather, 18-24 pounds, blacked and paneled, adopted October 9, 1912. Length changed from 6-1/2 inches to 6 inches on November 21, 1913 note of changes.

Note dated January 10, 1915 specified thickness of leather to be 1/8-inch and trademark along edge.

The January 21, 1916 records show the material changed from leather to close-woven black cotton. On July 10, the four 3/16” holes for the #10 x 1” oval-head brass retaining screws (T-2334) were eliminated, and the length reduced from 6-1/4 to 6 inches. In On September 2, 1916 specifications were changed from5/64” thickness to 3/32” and the material was changed to close-woven cotton webbing, specifying the webbing to stand a stress of 850 pounds, and a length of 7-1/2 inches. Straps retained with ten ten-ounce trimmer’s tacks (T-8435).

Part number changed to T5454B

Babbitt pinion bearing. “Two-piece” housing (with separate u-joint housing). Driveshaft pinion riveted to non-tapered shaft, using a Woodruff key, until #7,000 (July). At that time the shaft was modified to secure the gear with a nut, but was still not tapered at the gear.

Roller pinion bearing housing, with 3/8” studs after 18,000 (March 17). “Two-piece” housing. Pinion thrust bearing is P/N 2589, an assembly of 2589 cup, 2590 race, 15 2592 or 2811 balls, and a 2590 snap ring. Driveshaft now had tapered end for the pinion gear.

Similar to 1910, pinion bearing housing now used 13/32” studs.

U-joint housing integral with shaft housing. Used cast pinion bearing housing with enclosed stud mount (same as 1911-1913). In July 1919 Ford introduced a 4:1 ring and pinion set using a 12-tooth pinion and a 48-tooth ring gear.

A new forged pinion bearing spool identified by the exposed mounting bolts (instead of enclosed studs). Rear flange of driveshaft housing was machined to match the new spool (no longer had the lip that fit the earlier spool). The pinion thrust bearing was of the three-piece type, using two 2591 races, and a 2591 ball bearing assembly. These changes were made during 1920. In January 1920, the ten tooth pinion was introduced, and the previous 12 and 48 tooth gears were discontinued. The ten tooth pinion worked with the standard ring gear.


Part # Factory # Description
----- T153 Babbitt pinion bearing. (No separate pinion bearing spool.) U-joint housing is a separate part, bolted to the front end of the driveshaft housing.
2533 T153B After car 2500 the housing was modified; had a larger and stronger flange, and modifications to the housing itself.
Part # Factory # Description
2582 T153C After 18,000. Roller pinion bearing with cast-iron bearing spool, held with studs and nuts. Drilled for 3/8” studs. (March 17)
Part # Factory # Description
2582 T153D Similar to 1910 but now drilled for 13/32” studs.
Part # Factory # Description
2582 T153D The U-joint housing is now integral with the driveshaft housing, eliminating the separate part used since early 1910.
Part # Factory # Description
2582 T153D A forged pinion bearing spool with exposed mounting bolts (instead of studs) and which does not require the separate bearing sleeve used before. The rear flange was modified for new pinion bearing spool. A new pinion thrust bearing (T185B) also appeared, replacing the more complex assembly (T185) used earlier.
© Bruce W. McCalley. Rev. February 4, 2007