Coils not working

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Blaze
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Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Wed Sep 02, 2020 12:21 am

I recently attempted to start my 1925 Model T after about 3 years of sitting. Only one coil buzzes, the other three (3) do not. What can I do to get the coils working again? Coils are original Ford wood coils. Can I sand the points with emery board to freshen the points or will I need to send them in for reconditioning.

Note: The last time the car ran, I pulled it into garage after short drive and the car quit abruptly. I have not been able to start the car since. When I lived in northern Michigan I could not find anyone to assist. Since then I have moved to southeast Michigan where there are many more ppl with experience on model T's. I did keep fuel and Stable in gas tank. I freshened the gas once and added more Stable.

Previously the coils always worked, could the problem be the coils, since I've noticed now that only one (1) coil is buzzing?

Any help would be appreciated. I got the car from my father who bought and drove it to high school in the late 30's. Unfortunately, I am not very mechanically inclined.

Thank you for any assistance.


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Luke » Wed Sep 02, 2020 3:00 am

Rick,

There are several things that could be at issue, and at several thousand miles distance it's a little difficult to go over all of them, but the likely problem is simply 'connections'.

There are connections in the coils themselves (eg. points), the box that houses the coils (eg. the spring connectors to the three 'buttons' on the coils), the timer at the front of the motor, ignition switch etc.

If you can find someone local who knows about T's to assist it might be the most effective way of sorting things out, but if you're keen to look yourself then here's what I suggest:

(1) Pull out the coil that coil appears to be working (let's call this the 'good' coil, and the place it's located the 'good' position) and exchange it with one of the others (the coils typically just pull out vertically - they may require gentle levering).

(2) Turn the key on and turn over the motor at least a couple of revolutions. There are several possible outcomes:

(3) If the good coil works in the new position then it's possible the coil that was in place is faulty, or the coilbox spring connector at that place needed cleaning/adjusting and moving the coils has 'fixed' the connection.

(4) If the good coil doesn't work in the new position then either the coilbox spring connectors or the timer could be at fault (or wiring between the timer and coilbox). The former are easy to check - these are the little brass tongues that rest up against the coil buttons, just make sure they're proud of the coil box, and the tips where they sit against the coil are clean. You can clean them with a light abrasive (even toothpaste) or a contact cleaner (methyl alchohol).

(5) If the/a previously 'bad' coil works in the good position this could mean the spring connector issue as above where the coil was originally located, or the timer.

(6) If the/a previously 'bad' coil doesn't work in the good position this would suggest the coil is faulty. A light clean of the points (I'd run a little 400 grit carborundum paper through them - make sure you then run a little paper through to remove any grit) might get it going. Try that with all the 'bad' coils as needed.

If that doesn't work then you may need to seek some external assistance, given your comment on mechanical knowledge ;-)

Mindful of the that comment I've also not discussed the timer. Perhaps you could just try swapping the coils around first (obviously you can exchange all the 'bad' coils into the 'good' position to test each one) and report back on that?

Also happy to give you a call and work through things that way if it's easier.

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Re: Coils not working

Post by Charlie B in N.J. » Wed Sep 02, 2020 9:37 am

If 1 coil is buzzing there's power going to the coil box so that's #1. Turn the key on to bat. The wiring harness from the timer goes to terminals on the coil box. Ground each one one at a time. If the coils are OK & the box internal wiring is OK each coil should buzz as you ground it's terminal. If the dead one's still don't buzz those coils or the box internal wiring is bad. If they do buzz it's timer wiring or the timer itself. We'd have to take it from there if you post results.
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Oldav8tor » Wed Sep 02, 2020 11:58 am

There are lots of knowledgeable Model T guys in SE Michigan. Many belong to the Casual T's. You might check them out. <http://www.casualts.org/>
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Fordwright » Wed Sep 02, 2020 12:34 pm

The trembler coil is the simplest form of ignition on any engine. There are very few parts.
I'd start with the contact points, the wire connections, the switch, the timer (or low-voltage distributor) and lastly the coils themselves for continuity.
That just about covers every possibility.


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Re: Coils not working

Post by John kuehn » Wed Sep 02, 2020 12:44 pm

Yes, check the coils first by swapping them around to a location where one will buzz. That’s probably the oldest maintenance trick for ignition on a Model T. If they all buzz you can go to the next steps to see why they won’t buzz in other locations in your coil box.

Before checking anything else I would give your timer a good cleanup. Buts that’s me. Others will have other opinions but sooner or later you need to check out your timer for wear or to see if it’s just plain dirty.
Good luck!

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Re: Coils not working

Post by Fordwright » Wed Sep 02, 2020 1:09 pm

Blaze wrote:
Wed Sep 02, 2020 12:21 am
I recently attempted to start my 1925 Model T after about 3 years of sitting. Only one coil buzzes, the other three (3) do not. What can I do to get the coils working again? Coils are original Ford wood coils. Can I sand the points with emery board to freshen the points or will I need to send them in for reconditioning.

Note: The last time the car ran, I pulled it into garage after short drive and the car quit abruptly. I have not been able to start the car since. When I lived in northern Michigan I could not find anyone to assist. Since then I have moved to southeast Michigan where there are many more ppl with experience on model T's. I did keep fuel and Stable in gas tank. I freshened the gas once and added more Stable.

Previously the coils always worked, could the problem be the coils, since I've noticed now that only one (1) coil is buzzing?

Any help would be appreciated. I got the car from my father who bought and drove it to high school in the late 30's. Unfortunately, I am not very mechanically inclined.

Thank you for any assistance.
Forgive me if this sounds like a stupid or rude question, but have you tried rotating the engine? The timer only activates one trembler coil at a time.


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Re: Coils not working

Post by got10carz » Wed Sep 02, 2020 1:22 pm

If one coil buzzes non stop when cranking, it could be the timing gears failed. If only one works intermittently I would look at the timer. If it has a roller timer the spring could have fallen off and only grounding only when the roller is down,( gravity) .


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Been Here Before » Wed Sep 02, 2020 1:25 pm

A suggestion: google - model t ford owners manual troubleshooting

Find: Search Results Web results Ford Model T Service Manual
www.cimorelli.com › mtdl › servicemanual PDF development of a successful repair business, in fact it is the only safe ... manual containing instructions on the care and operation of Ford cars, in order that you ...

Find section called Tracing Car Troubled beginning page 231. It may help.
676382manual.jpg


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Re: Coils not working

Post by R.V.Anderson » Wed Sep 02, 2020 1:35 pm

If the car ran fine before sitting for three years, 90% of the time the trouble is that the points have a little bit of oxidation on them. All you have to do is take a piece of 120-150 sandpaper about 1 inch wide x 3 inches long and fold it in half the long way so the grit is to the outside. Depress the vibrator, then slip the paper in between the contacts. Put a little upward pressure on the vibrator to give the paper some resistance, then pull it back and forth between the contacts about a dozen times. Blow out any debris between the contacts and see if the coil will buzz. If not, repeat the procedure. You can also use a thin, flat file rather than sandpaper if you have one. Don't use emery, as it is a conductor.

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Re: Coils not working

Post by Charlie B in N.J. » Wed Sep 02, 2020 1:45 pm

Please Keep It Simple. No need to start tearing things apart. Use what I posted. Remove nothing. Check/eliminate a lot of stuff without "wrenching".
Forget everything you thought you knew.

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Re: Coils not working

Post by Fordwright » Wed Sep 02, 2020 1:48 pm

R.V.Anderson wrote:
Wed Sep 02, 2020 1:35 pm
If the car ran fine before sitting for three years, 90% of the time the trouble is that the points have a little bit of oxidation on them. All you have to do is take a piece of 120-150 sandpaper about 1 inch wide x 3 inches long and fold it in half the long way so the grit is to the outside. Depress the vibrator, then slip the paper in between the contacts. Put a little upward pressure on the vibrator to give the paper some resistance, then pull it back and forth between the contacts about a dozen times. Blow out any debris between the contacts and see if the coil will buzz. If not, repeat the procedure. You can also use a thin, flat file rather than sandpaper if you have one. Don't use emery, as it is a conductor.
My dad used to use the striker from a book of paper matches to file the points when his Model T quit firing.

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Re: Coils not working

Post by George House » Wed Sep 02, 2020 4:55 pm

Does your coilbox have a little sliver of metal between #2 and 3 coils thats use is to pull the front and rear of the box together ? It’s surprising to me how many coil boxes have lost this essential piece in the last 100 years. Even if its present in your box warpage might’ve kept the coil ‘buttons’ from the box contacts. ....use twigs between the rear of the box and coils to get em to buzz. But if you’re Presbyterian, use toothpicks..
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Moxie26 » Wed Sep 02, 2020 5:23 pm

Please do not fiddle with the coil upper hardware...............

Clean your commutator contacts and roller to eliminate rust and/or gunk that would prevent proper metal to metal contact to fire the coils Three years of idleness will need to be cleaned.

If the upper hardware of the coils have been touched , the electrical settings will have to be reset/checked by someone who is a trusted coil man.

Bob J.


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Re: Coils not working

Post by John kuehn » Wed Sep 02, 2020 5:25 pm

George is right about the metal strap being missing from coil boxes. It’s not uncommon to find them missing.
They probably were removed so that previous owners could easily get the coils out when they needed adjustment which they eventually would need.

Mine was missing from the coil box in my 21 and surprisingly they are being reproduced.
Lang’s sells them in the coil box catalog section.
They are 3.25 each.
And they do tighten a coil box for a good snug fit.


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Re: Coils not working

Post by John Illinois » Wed Sep 02, 2020 5:36 pm

Charlie B in N.J. wrote:
Wed Sep 02, 2020 9:37 am
If 1 coil is buzzing there's power going to the coil box so that's #1. Turn the key on to bat. The wiring harness from the timer goes to terminals on the coil box. Ground each one one at a time. If the coils are OK & the box internal wiring is OK each coil should buzz as you ground it's terminal. If the dead one's still don't buzz those coils or the box internal wiring is bad. If they do buzz it's timer wiring or the timer itself. We'd have to take it from there if you post results.
Ifyou are not real mechanical,this would a good place to start.

John


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Wed Sep 02, 2020 9:35 pm

Thank you to all for the information and recommendations. Your input is truly appreciated.
I now have a place to start. I have no idea yet if the coil box is missing a part on back inside of box. I did rotate the motor yesterday by turning the hand crank and it didn't make a difference. Believe me, with my limited knowledge no questions are stupid or rude, as I am learning and willing to learn as I progress through
Trouble shooting or making simple repairs. I would not even attempt to tear any engines, transmissions or rear axles apart. I do have my limitations, and I realize it.
I will check the coils again, sand the points and move the coils around to see if they buzz in a different position. As I stated previously, know one coil buzzed (good coil) and that was the second coil from left side.
Again thank you for all responses, and I will post my progress.
Gentleman, Thank you!


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Thu Sep 03, 2020 2:03 am

Update:

Ok, I couldnt sleep thinking about all the recommendations I received so I got up and went out to garage to work on my "T" and this is what i did; with results.

I noted that #2 coil was buzzing after turning key. I removed all coils and lightly sanded all points on coils, and the metal contact points on back of each coiI and noted the 8 copper pieces on back of coil box and the copper strip on bottom of coil box. I sanded all copper inside coil box, and replaced coils. I rotated all coils through the #2 position and noted that each coil would buzz only when placed in the #2 or good coil position.

I then rotated the motor further than I had yesterday and noted now that the #4 only was buzzing.

What should above information be telling me?

Should all four coils buzz to start car?

In the past when my dad was teaching me to drive the T, I would hear coils buzzing but due to cover I didn't know if all were buzzing. Unfortunately, my dad passed away last December, so I can no longer ask him about the car.

As always, thank you for your assistance, and I look forward to your advice.


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Kerry » Thu Sep 03, 2020 2:20 am

1 coil at a time will buzz as you rotate the engine with the crank or starter through each cylinder cycle.


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Chris Barker » Thu Sep 03, 2020 3:38 am

If all 4 coils buzzed in the 'good' location, they are adequate for now.

Go to the timer and its wiring. It could be a roller, a brush or a flapper. It's obvious how it works. Clean it up and, if it's roller, oil it. If it's a flapper, grease it.
If you want to remove the rotating part for cleaning, note that under the camshaft nut (3/4"AF) is a cover which holds a pin which locates the rotor at the right position. Don't lose it.

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Re: Coils not working

Post by ABoer » Thu Sep 03, 2020 6:46 am

How is it with the spring of the roller . ???

Toon

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Re: Coils not working

Post by MKossor » Thu Sep 03, 2020 7:34 am

Rick, Just to be clear; The Model T crank requires 2 complete 360 degree turns for the engine to cycle through each cylinder firing (coil buzzing) position. The coils should buzz in sequence as you turn the crank: cylinder 1 then 2 then 4 then cylinder 3 as you complete 2 full turns of the crank. Then then cycle repeats with cylinder 1 again.

The coils should remain buzzing as you turn the crank handle for approximately 90 degrees of crank rotation then cease buzzing for about the next 90 degrees of crank rotation. Hope this helps.
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Moxie26 » Thu Sep 03, 2020 10:01 am

Blaze: Please proceed with Chris Barker's and my suggestion to clean and brighten metal contacts on the inside of the commutator,... and roller/flapper/brush ( depending on style of commutator )...on the end of the camshaft


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Moxie26 » Thu Sep 03, 2020 10:03 am

After cleaning, proceed with Mike Kossor's post


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Thu Sep 03, 2020 11:22 am

Thank you for your input, and I didn't know the crank had to be turned 360 degrees but that makes perfect sense.

Once I've cleaned and greased or oiled the timer, do I need a centering tool to replace the cover? Does the pin on the timer simply slide out with a pair of pliers? After reading about the timer I noted that only a 9/16 wrench would be required to remove timer. I don't think I have to go that far to remove timer though, is this correct, as I don't want to replace timer at this point just clean it up.

Does sound like I've got a grasp on my current challenge? No pun intended.....lol

Thanks so much!

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Re: Coils not working

Post by Fordwright » Thu Sep 03, 2020 1:05 pm

Blaze wrote:
Thu Sep 03, 2020 11:22 am
Thank you for your input, and I didn't know the crank had to be turned 360 degrees but that makes perfect sense.

Once I've cleaned and greased or oiled the timer, do I need a centering tool to replace the cover? Does the pin on the timer simply slide out with a pair of pliers? After reading about the timer I noted that only a 9/16 wrench would be required to remove timer. I don't think I have to go that far to remove timer though, is this correct, as I don't want to replace timer at this point just clean it up.

Does sound like I've got a grasp on my current challenge? No pun intended.....lol

Thanks so much!
It's actually 720 degrees to hit all four boxes. I think most of us thought you were testing all the boxes by shorting them directly. That's why I mentioned rotating the engine. Only one coil box fires at any given time, and only two of them fire per revolution. That's why it takes two full turns to fire all four.


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Re: Coils not working

Post by George Hand » Thu Sep 03, 2020 1:33 pm

Blaze, Have you defined what type of timer, or have i missed that, They are many styles of timers with the roller type this was what
Ford supplied along with a lot of replacements, as previous indicated these are to be periodically lubricated with motor oil after an internal cleaning. Next would be the flapper type, it also needs to be cleaned & lubed with a non conductive soft grease. And the last of the most often used would be the "plastic" bodied "New Day" these need period cleaning & use NO lubrication, they have a spring loaded brush that can bind and the brass contacts can corrode or arc and burn, they also have fallen victim from being reproduced by an improper "plastic" material in the housing, these can usually be identified by the letter "S" cast on the arm where the advance rod hole of the timer is. Also I would have started my diagnosis as long as you knew at least 1 coil will buzz by taking a piece of grounded primary or "house" electrical wire (size or gauge not important) and with the switch on BAT, touch each of the top row of terminals (4) one at a time & listen for a coil buzz, if all buzz your problem is in the timer or wiring from the coil box to the timer. if some buzz take note of the ones that do & if they are tight in the coil box swap kown good coils with non working coils & retest. Much of this has been explained by other posters. Good luck George
Last edited by George Hand on Thu Sep 03, 2020 8:20 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Coils not working

Post by Charlie B in N.J. » Thu Sep 03, 2020 4:44 pm

For cryn’ out loud guy’s he’s saying each coil buzzes in turn as he cranks the motor over. Why are some of you telling him to pull more stuff apart? Didn’t he say he wasn’t highly versed mechanically? If that’s what happening his no start doesn’t involve the ignition system at all. Please don’t second guess with no information. Especially with a novice.
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Susanne » Thu Sep 03, 2020 5:31 pm

As you crank over the motor, every time a piston comes up on compression (pulling the crank gets harder) one of the coils will buzz. Then when you come up on compression for the next cylinder (1/2 turn, or 180º) the next coil will buzz. Do this for 2 complete turns of the crank, each time it comeson compression, a new coil will buzz until you get all 4.

Unlike a "modern" car that only has one coil, and uses a distributor with points to fire it for each spark plug, a T has a separate coil for each cylinder and the "distributor" (known as a timer) on the front right of the motor is merely a switch to turn on and off the coils in the correct order. When a T coil buzzes, it's actually the coil assembly vibrating on each coil, sending a shower of sparks to each spark plug.

The timer has a roller or a mechanical contact that is attached to the camshaft (under the timer cover - the thing with the wires attached to the timer) that allows the top button on the coil to connect, through the timer, to ground. The power (either magneto or battery, but NEVER both at the same time for reasons not necessary at this point) is fed through the button on the bottom of the coil. For a coil to work, it has to be seated (down) in the coilbox so it gets electrical current (in this case, from the battery when the key is on "Bat") from the contact in the bottom of the box, against the contact on top of the "front" of the box (front being front of the car). The bottom button in the front of the coil is the contact for the spark plug wire. 3 buttons, an upper and lower one on the front of each coil, and one dead center in the bottom of the coil.)

If your coil isn't making contact with either the battery (bottom contact) or the timer contact (Top contact), it won't buzz, and therefore not work. And the coilbox contacts (especially the bottom ones) tend to smash down over the ensuing 100 or so years of use. If they're flat, be GENTLE - that brass is fragile from age!!!

Anyway, that's why your #2 coil buzzed, then when you turned the motor the #4 buzzed. The next (on the 1/2 turn of the crank) will be #3, then with another 1/2 turn of the crank, #1 will (magically, if all the parts are working) come to life, to repeat over and over.

IF this isn't the case - then you need to find out why the coils in question aren't getting juice - it could be a flattened contact (or contacts) in that reespective spot, it could be your timer is gunked up and corroded and nastified and needs to be cleaned (a whole different ball of wax). The good news is if one of the coils does buss, it means your switch (at least on battery) is working (the bottom power contacts are all poweed off the same wire, and are always hot)

And if you have any questions, or this gets the least little bit confusing, ASK! The T ignition system is NOTHING like a more modern one coil system... it's not difficult to understand or learn, just... different.

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Re: Coils not working

Post by MKossor » Thu Sep 03, 2020 7:03 pm

Rick, it seems apparent from your posts that your 1925 engine not starting may not be rooted in your coils not working. You should follow the suggestions to clean the timer contacts and verify all coils fire in order (1, 2, 4, 3, 1, 2, 4, 3...) as you rotate the crank repeatedly as you are now aware. Now, please don't be slighted by my next question because, I and those unabashed will readily admit, fell victim to a time or two; Did you turn the gas on? Next, did you pull the choke when cranking (at least the first couple cranks, then release)? Just a covering all bases as you learn more about the Model T's nuances.
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Re: Coils not working

Post by DHort » Thu Sep 03, 2020 8:59 pm

Is there anyone in Michigan, Indiana, or Ohio that can help Rick with this issue? Rick, so you have an account on FB where you can also ask for assistance? Are you close to Detroit at all, where there are a lot of T owners?


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Re: Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Sat Sep 05, 2020 4:31 am

I turned the hand crank, and all coils seemed to fire in sequence except coil #1 which did not buzz even after being pushed down to make sure it was tight in coil box. I did not reposition the coils to determine if another coil would buzz in that #1 position. I will try that later today.

The timer has not been touched other that noting an oiler cap near the center front of timer. Timer appears as old as engine. I wasn't sure what type of oil to use and how much oil. I have read where multiple types have been used over the years. What type of oil is generally recommended? I assume that the timer requires oil due to the oiler cap on the face of timer. Is that a false assumption, I know many types have been made over the years?

I can not find anywhere to turn the fuel "0n & Off" . As I recall I never knew where to turn fuel on or off. I don't mean to sound uninformed but I don't recall ever turning fuel on or off. Although it makes sense that there should be one.

Thank you for all the continued assistance.


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Blaze
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Sat Sep 05, 2020 4:34 am

Yes, I am close to Detroit. There must be a lot of "T" owners in the area. I really do need to join one of the clubs. The Casual T's seemed to be the club to join in my area.


Norman Kling
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Norman Kling » Sat Sep 05, 2020 11:07 am

After you determine all coils are buzzing in proper order, one more thing to do in regard to the spark. That is to check the timing. Put the lever on the steering column all the way up and turn very slowly the crank until one coil just begins to buzz. The piston related to the buzzing coil should be just past top dead center on the compression stroke. On most crankshafts this occurs when the pin through the front pulley is just a few degrees lower on the side closest to the steering column (on American cars). If you were to stand in front of the radiator, facing the car it would be on your right side. Hard to see with the radiator in place, but you can tell where it is if you remove the fan belt.
When you determine the timing is correct, be sure the engine is getting fuel. Since the car has been sitting 3 years, it is entirely possible that the fuel has dried up and become like varnish. In this case, you might need to clean out the fuel line and the carburetor, drain the tank and put in some fresh fuel. When you park the car for a long time, it is a good idea to drain the tank and carburetor. I have worked on two cars which had been parked a long time and actually had to replace the tank, and fuel line because the fuel had set up.
Norm

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Fordwright
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Fordwright » Sat Sep 05, 2020 12:55 pm

Blaze wrote:
Sat Sep 05, 2020 4:34 am
Yes, I am close to Detroit. There must be a lot of "T" owners in the area. I really do need to join one of the clubs. The Casual T's seemed to be the club to join in my area.
Based on what you told us, maybe everything is OK. It might be worth a try to make sure is has gas and try to start it.


George Hand
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Re: Coils not working

Post by George Hand » Sat Sep 05, 2020 4:49 pm

Blaze, So you found that the # 1 coil does not buzz, as you said you have not swapped with a working coil, if you have not tried the swap yet take a grounded wire as I indicated in an earlier reply & ground the top wire on the firewall for cylinder # 1 with the key on bat. and see if you get a buzz, if not swap coils & retest & see if problem follows coil. Repost your results. Also if you found an oiler on the timer then it would indicate a roller timer that is lubed with oil.


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Blaze
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Sat Sep 05, 2020 5:05 pm

The #1 coil does not buzz....all others seem to be working in order. Can I put standard motor oil in the timer or should I put a specific weight or type in it.
Does detergent or non-detergent oil need to be used?
The fuel tank is not varnished, although it could be in the carb. Or fuel line. I have made sure to stableize fuel with STABLE and have added fuel to tank adding enough stable based on amount of gasoline added.
I had been using RV fuel ( no ethenol ) and added lead to gas based on quantity of gasoline added. So I hope I'm ok there, but maybe not.

Note: all coils work but coil #1 does buzz/fire when rotating engine with hand crank.


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Blaze
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Sat Sep 05, 2020 5:09 pm

Mr. Hand, when I ground the wire to firewall does the other end of wire connect to point where connection goes thru firewall directly from each coil starting with coil #1?
Thank you.


George Hand
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Re: Coils not working

Post by George Hand » Sat Sep 05, 2020 5:26 pm

Take a piece of insulated wire and ground one end to the engine, take the other end and touch the top # 1 timer wire (on the firewall) with the key on battery, listen for a buzz, try the next wire to verify your connection. Send me a PM if toy care.


Topic author
Blaze
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Re: Coils not working

Post by Blaze » Wed Sep 09, 2020 9:20 am

I would like to thank all those who provided me with the information and instructions on getting my coils working. I truly appreciate the time and effort taken to assist me. I could not have got them working without your help!

Thank you to:
George Hand, Luke, Charlie B in N.J., Oldav8tor, Fordwright, John Kuehn, got10carz, Been here before, R.V. Anderson, George House, Moxie26, John Illinois,
Kerry, Chris Baker, Aboer, MKosser, Susanne, D Hort, and Norman Kling.

Everyone's assistance was deeply appreciated. I certainly learned a lot during the process. I hope to push the car out of garage and attempt to start her
today.

Sincerely,
Rick

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